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Análise Angular do Remate em Suspensão com Corrida no Andebol

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 Alberto da C. L. Graziano

 

O estudo dos ângulos durante a execução do remate em suspensão no Andebol, é de elevada importância, em particular para a definição do tipo de participação e solicitação da estrutura músculo-tendinosa na produção desse movimento. Este estudo coloca questoes relacionadas com o ângulo do tronco com o eixo horizontal, ângulo do joelho e o ângulo anterior da perna e o pé. A amostra foi constituida por dois (2) ATLETAS DE Andebol do escalão competitivo sénior masculino participantes na fase final para o apuramento à primeira divisao de Portugal 1996. Utilizou-se o programa informático Peack5 (Peack Performance Technologies Inc.) para realizar a análise cinematográfica dos remates. Para a recolha de imagens foi utilizada uma câmara de vídeo super VHS, GR-SX1, SVHSC 625. Os principais resultados encontrados foram os seguintes: (i) Em relação ao valor da máxima extensão do tronco, os nossos resultados situam-se no intervalo compreendido entre 111º graus; (ii) Encontrou-se uma correlação significativa (r= 0,92) entre o ângulo do joelho no momento de máxima flexão e no momento de máxima altura; (iii) Na globalidade os resultados sao estatisticamente significativos para p=0,05

 

Introduçao

O Andebol constitui-se actualmente num desporto inserido no quadro das mais importantes modalidades desportivas. É uma modalidade cuja prática envolve um conjunto altamente complexo de movimentos, quer na sua utilização segmentar, quer na realizaçao global dos procedimentos técnicos utilizados.

Entre os elementos técnicos, o remate é, um dos mais importantes elementos no jogo de Andebol. É a acçao técnica com a qual culmina o jogo de ataque: resulta da coordenação das acçoes colectivas, e de domínio da técnica dos jogadores no ataque que dirigem os seus esforços para a concretização do golo, uma vez considerado como objectivo fundamental. É um gesto técnico de grande complexidade motora.

Existem diferentes formas de executar o remate no Andebol, devendo este ser adaptado à posiçao e situação confrontada na competição. Seu tipo e classificação é determinado pela maneira como se movimenta o jogador e, também, pela posiçãao do seu corpo com referência aos solo. Elevar a bola numa mao para fazer a preparação, assim como a realização do remate nao necessariamente antes e dependendo da situação o remate pode efectuar-se a uma altura: superior, intermédia e abaixo da anca.

A maioria dos remates realiza-se aproveitando ao máximo a força dos músculos das pernas, braços e tronco.

Os vários tipos de remate exigem elevado grau de coordenação de vários segmentos corporais. Só o "simples" acto de remate implica a utilização harmoniosa da grande maioria dos segmentos e articulaçoes do corpo.

Associando a este a corrida, o salto é todo um esforço físico complementar de características estáticas e dinámicas. Poderemos considerar que, o remate em suspensão é o mais usual, mais específico, podendo-se considerar de primeira necessidade para o jogador de Andebol. É ainda de realçar que, em termos de participação mucular os músculos predominantes diferem no remate em apoio dos do remate em suspensão.

Para além de ser um meio técnico de elevada importância no seio das aquisiçoes básicas do andebolista, o remate em suspensão é também uma acção técnica ofensiva que tem sido analizada com o intuito de maximizar o rendimento.

Contudo, estes estudos tiveram como fulcro a descrição biomecânica e uma abordagem teórica e metodológica de aprendizagem, sendo escassa a pesquisa no âmbito cinemático.

O número reduzido de trabalhos realizados a nível internacional e a inexistência de pesquisas desta natureza a nível nacional contrapondo-se a importância que o remate em suspensão desempenha para o jogador de campo em geral conduziu-nos à realização deste estudo.

Por outro lado, o estudo dos ângulos durante a execução do remate em suspensão no Andebol, é de elevada importância, em particular para a definição do tipo de participação e solicitação da estrutura músculo-tendinosa na produção desse movimento.

O presente trabalho procura analizar a variação de alguns parâmetros cinemáticos no acto de remate em suspensão.

 

Material e Métodos

No nosso trabalho estudamos dois atletas de Andebol do escalão competitivo sénior masculino da equipa do Clube S. Mamede Infesta, participantes na fase final de 1996 para o apuramento à primeira divisão, na época de 1996.

O quadro 1, evidencia algumas das características dos sujeitos que constituem a amostra.

 

 

Quadro 1. Caracterização da amostra

Caso

Idade

(anos)

Peso(

Kg)

Altura

(m)

1

24

87

1,87

2

32

92

1,96

 

Para uma melhor aproximação da realidade, o estudo foi organizado de forma que existisse uma sessão de trabalho antes das execuçoes das acçoes a registrar em vídeo.

Os atletas realizaram cada um, 8 remates à baliza. Estes remates foram registados em vídeo no plano sagital.

Para a recolha de imagens foi utilizada, uma câmara de vídeo súper VHS, GR – SX1, SVHSC 625, a qual foi colocada num tripé, nivelando o eixo òptico com a horizontal a uma altura òptima em relaçao ao solo de 1,10 metros.

Utilizando o laboratório de biomecânica da FCDEF da UP as imagens foram analizadas bidimensionalmente no plano sagital, através do sistema Peak5 (Performance Tecnologies Inc, 1993). O hardware por nós utilizado, foi constituido por um computador PC HP Vetra 486/33N, um monitor HP súper VGA, monitor de montagem Sony PVM e um vídeo Recorde Panasonic SVHS AG 7350 .

As imagens foram reproduzidas pelo vídeo súper VHS, GR – SX1, SVHS 625, o qual permite uma frequência de leitura de 50 imagens por segundo, para o monitor HP súper VGA. A visualizaçao das imagens foi possível no monitor HP súper VGA para controlar o Software.

 

Procedimentos Estatísticos

Foram utilizados procedimentos estatísticos distintos de modo a obter-se um quadro descritivo das variáveis observadas através das seguintes medidas: média aritmética (x) e desvio padrao (sd). Utilizou-se também o coeefeciente de correlação de Pearson para examinar as relaçoes existentes as varáveis e o teste não paramétrico U de Mann-Whitney para se encontrarem diferenças estatisticamente significativas.

Assumiu-se o nível de significância correspondente a a = 0,05

 

Resultados e discussão

Os valores do tronco na máxima flexão (MET) e no momento de remate (FTMR) são apresentados no quadro 2.

Quadro 2: Valores angulares do tronco na máxima extenão (MET) e no momento de remate (FTMR)

Caso

MET

FTMR

 

1

107,4+ 8,25

75,23+ 3,23

2

98,56+ 3,80

82,45+ 3,67

 

 

Quanto aos resultados de MET e da FTMR, os valores encontrados encontram-se situados dentro do intervalo apresentado por Markov (1965 cit. Por Hay 1981) e indicam que os atletas aplicam uma força considerável à bola contribuindo assim para o aumento da velocidade com que ela deixa a mão do rematador.

No momento da máxima flexão e da máxima altura do joelho da perna contrária à perna de impulso, foi analizado o ângulo do joelho (quadro 3)

 

Quadro 3: Valores angulares do joelho na máxima flexão e na máxima altura

Caso

ÂngJMF

ÂngJMA

 

1

43,35+ 5,38

75,23+ 3,23

2

51+ 6,46

73,25+ 35,76

 

Com relação ao ângulo do joelho na sua máxima flexão, o valor encontrado (para MF) é 3,4º e 21,6º graus menor do que o encontrado no ângulo do joelho na sua máxima altura (MA) para os dois casos.

Quadro 4: Valores angulares da perna no momento de saída (AngJSai)

Caso

ÂngP7PSai

ÂngJSai

 

1

106,58+ 4,63

158,2+ 1,51

2

100,07+ 8,45

153,38+ 3,25

 

Em relação ao ângulo do joelho, existe uma convergência na literatura no sentido de se reconhecer a ocorrência de uma extensão completa da articulação do joelho na impulsão.

A pesar desta convergência, a variabilidade dos resultados disponíveis na literatura é grande. Bruggemann e Nixdorf (1990 cit. Por Conceição, 1996) obtiveram valores entre 142,72+8,38º graus enquanto Ozalin e Varónica (1989, in Costa, 1996) referem que o ângulo do joelho debe variar entre 140º-160º graus.

Para Lees et al (1994) o ângulo do joelho no momento de impulsão debe variar entre 158,2º+1,91º graus. Os nossos resultados confirmam a adequação deste reconhecimento.

Contrariamente ao que acontece com o joelho no momento de saída, existem poucos dados publicados em relação à articulação do tornozelo. Os 104º graus desta articulação no momento de impulsão encontrados por Haskisson e Koorchummy (1991) in Costa (1996) em velocistas de elite são consideravelmente superiores que os encontrados por Bruggeman (1990) e Conceição (1996) respectivamente de 64,5º e 67,5+3,1º o que poderia conduzir à conclusão de que os nossos atletas têm uma maior flexão plantar no momento de saída. Como pode se verificar, neste nível de análise são necessários dados para se poder retirar qualquer conclusão

 

Teste U de Mann-Whitney

Realizou-se o teste U de Mann-Whitney para encontrarem-se diferenças estatisticamente significativos entre os resultados obtidos nos dois casos.

Na globalidade os resultados são estatisticamente significativos para a = 0,05.

 

Conclusões

De acordo com o observado nos casos apresentados parece concluir que:

  1. Os valores de MET e da FTMR indicam que os atletas aplicam uma força considerável à bola contribuindo assim para o aumento da velocidade com que ela deixa a mão do rematador.
  2. Encontrou-se uma relação significativa (r=0,92) entre o ângulo do joelho no momento de máxima flexão e no momento da máxima altura.
  3. Na globalidade os resultados são estatisticamente significativos para p=0,05.

 

Bibliografia

Bruggemann, P:: Nixdorf, E.; Ernest, H. (1990): Scientific report on the second IAAF world championships in Athletics Rome, 1987. Biomechanical analysis of the Long Jump. International Fondation. Marshallarts.

Costa, A. (1996): Caracterização da corrida de 400 metros planos. Indicação de algumas variáveis condicionantes do rendimento. FCEFD. UP.

Conceição, F. (1996): Análise biomecânica da chamada do salto em comprimento. Dissertação apresentada com vista a obtensão do grau de mestre em ciências do desporto na ârea de especialização de Desporto de Alto Rendimento.

Hay, J.G. (1981): Biomecânica das Técnicas Desportivas. Tradução de Sónia Cavalcan L. Corrêa, et al, 2ª Edição. Ed. Interamericana, Rio de Janeiro 231-277.

Lees, A.; Grahan – Smith, P.; Fowler, N. (1994): A biomechanical analysis of the last strid, touchdown, and takeoff characteristics of the men s long jump. Journal of the Applied Biomechanies, 10: 61-78.

Markov, D. (1965): Javelin Technique, Track Teechnique, nº 19 March. P. 605.

Ozalin, e Varónica, H. (1989): Atletismo. Livro para Institutos de Educação Física. Edit. Cultura Física e Desporto.

 

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